Saturday, April 2, 2016

Taber's Medical Dictionary:Human Skin

The organ that forms the outer surface of the body. It shields the body against infection, dehydration, and temperature changes; provides sensory information about the environment; manufactures vitamin D; and excretes salts and small amounts of urea.
Skin consists of two major divisions: the epidermis and the dermis. Depending on its location and local function, skin varies in terms of its thickness, strength, presence of hair, nails, or glands, pigmentation, vascularity, nerve supply, and keratinization. Skin may be classified as thin and hairy or thick and hairless (glabrous). Thin hairy skin covers most of the body. Glabrous skin covers the surface of the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and flexor surfaces of the digits.

STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE ; SEE: hair for illus; SEE: burn; SEE: dermatitis; SEE: dermis; SEE: eczema; SEE: epidermis; SEE: rash

Alligator skin:
Severe scaling of the skin with formation of thick plates resembling the hide of an alligator. 
SEE: ichthyosis

Artificial skin:
SEE: Human skin equivalent.

Bronzed skin:
Brownish hyperpigmentation of the skin, seen in Addison disease and hemochromatosis, some cases of diabetes mellitus, and cirrhosis.

Deciduous skin:
SEE: Keratolysis.

Elastic skin:
SEE: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Foreign bodies in the skin:
Objects that enter the skin accidentally or are inserted deliberately. The areas involved are cleaned carefully. Foreign material can be removed carefully piece by piece or by vigorous swabbing with gauze or a brush and a soapy solution. A sterile dressing should be used.
For removal of a small foreign body, the area is cleaned first with mild soap and warm water. A clean needle can be sterilized by heating it to a dull or bright red in a flame; this can be done with a single match. Because both ends of the needle get hot, it is wise to hold the far end in a nonconductor such as a fold of paper or a cork. The needle is allowed to cool. A black deposit on its surface should be disregarded; it is sterile carbon and does not interfere with the procedure. The needle is introduced at right angles to the direction of the sliver, and the sliver is lifted out. Most people attempt to stick the needle in the direction of the foreign body and consequently thrust many times before they manage to lift the sliver out. When the sliver is removed, an antiseptic is applied and the wound covered with a sterile dressing. Tetanus antitoxin or a tetanus booster may be required, depending on the history of immunization.

Glabrous skin:
Skin that does not contain hair follicles, such as that over the palms and soles.

Glossy skin:
Shiny appearance of the skin due to atrophy or injury to nerves.

Hidebound skin:
SEE: Scleroderma.

Loose skin:
Hypertrophy of the skin.

Parchment skin:
Atrophy of the skin with stretching.

Photoaged skin:
Skin changes caused by chronic sun exposure. This condition is prevented by avoiding suntanning and sunburning and has been treated with topical tretinoin and chemical peels.
SYN: SEE: photodamaged skin

Photodamaged skin:
SEE: Photoaged skin.

Piebald skin:
SEE: Vitiligo.

Scarf skin:
The cuticle, epidermis; the outer layer of the skin.

Sun-damaged skin:
SEE: Photoaged skin.

Tissue-engineered skin:
SEE: Human skin equivalent.

True skin:
SEE: Dermis.